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Conflict and Agency among Sex Workers and Pimps: A Closer Look at Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science May 2014653: 225-246, doi:10.1177/0002716214521993
Table of Contents
May 2014; 653 (1)
Human Trafficking: Recent Empirical Research
Edited by: Ronald Weitzer and Sheldon X. Zhang – New Directions in Research on Human Trafficking
A Pre-Publication Version of Child Sex Trafficking Towards an Agent Centered Approach
From the forthcoming book Human Trafficking: Reconsidering the Problem,
Published by the Open Society Foundation.
Authors: Anthony Marcus, Amber Horning, & Ric Curtis
The Trafficking in Persons: A Game of Risk
Amber Horning, Christopher Thomas, Alana Henninger, and Anthony Marcus
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice 2014 (forthcoming)
The State Department ranks countries on adherence to minimum standards set forth by the Trafficking Victims Protection Act 2000. The Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP) is updated annually and failure to enact changes to combat trafficking results in higher tier rankings. This paper evaluates the TIP by situating this tool in light of special features of the modern era, such as globalization and risk. Through a survey of the theoretical literature on risk and on trafficking risk factors, we devise six preliminary risk clusters and discuss how the TIP could incorporate governments’ response to trafficking risk factors into the ranking system. Our intentions are to spark debate about how risk factors could be incorporated in the TIP, to provide a preliminary model and to encourage further research in this area.
Marriage, Forced and Otherwise: Inter-generational conflict over marital choice among North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian New Yorkers
Presented by Alana Henninger at the European Society of Criminology Annual Conference
Over the past two decades, social policy concerns have emerged in varied OECD countries around the problem of “forced marriage” and intergenerational conflict over marital choices within migrant communities. While the United States Department of State defines forced marriage as “one in which one or both parties have not consented to the marriage”, for migrants who encounter conflicting kinship norms and beliefs in situations of diaspora, the question of consent is never simple. Interestingly, the Department of State identifies eleven countries where United States citizens have been known to be forced into marriage, but does not include the United States on this list. Some American advocacy organizations now argue that forced marriage is occurring in the United States in substantial numbers, and have begun calling for specific legislation and socio-legal responses. However, there is very little empirical research into the nature and scope of the problem because it involves complex and intimate family matters that are typically hidden from outsiders even when they are not in violation of receiving-country norms. Additionally, government institutions in western countries are sometimes hesitant to act because of the fear of appearing racist or forcing western values upon established cultural norms.
This exploratory study examines the ontology and life experiences of New Yorkers from families that migrated from places where arranged marriages are common in an effort to add to the small body of scientific knowledge on forced marriage in the United States. Using intercept recruitment, 100 CUNY students from these regions were surveyed about their beliefs, attitudes, and opinions concerning marital choices, and their experiences with intergenerational tensions within their family concerning arranged marriage. This study provides a view into what forced marriage may look like to students occupying a difficult space between sending and receiving countries, and how forced marriage may or may not fit the socio-legal categories of its Western advocates.